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Ruby on Rails 7.1 Release Notes

Highlights in Rails 7.1:

1 Upgrading to Rails 7.1

If you're upgrading an existing application, it's a great idea to have good test coverage before going in. You should also first upgrade to Rails 7.0 in case you haven't and make sure your application still runs as expected before attempting an update to Rails 7.1. A list of things to watch out for when upgrading is available in the Upgrading Ruby on Rails guide.

2 Major Features

2.1 Generate Dockerfiles for new Rails applications

Default Docker support to new Rails applications. When generating a new application, Rails will now include Docker-related files in the application.

These files serve as a foundational setup for deploying your Rails application in a production environment using Docker. It's important to note that these files are not meant for development purposes.

Here's a quick example of how to build and run your Rails app using these Docker files:

$ docker build -t app .
$ docker volume create app-storage
$ docker run --rm -it -v app-storage:/rails/storage -p 3000:3000 --env RAILS_MASTER_KEY=<your-config-master-key> app

You can also start a console or runner from this Docker image:

$ docker run --rm -it -v app-storage:/rails/storage --env RAILS_MASTER_KEY=<your-config-master-key> app console

For those looking to create a multi-platform image (e.g., Apple Silicon for AMD or Intel deployment), and push it to Docker Hub, follow these steps:

$ docker login -u <your-user>
$ docker buildx create --use
$ docker buildx build --push --platform=linux/amd64,linux/arm64 -t <your-user/image-name> .

This enhancement simplifies the deployment process, providing a convenient starting point for getting your Rails application up and running in a production environment.

2.2 Add ActiveRecord::Base.normalizes

ActiveRecord::Base.normalizes declares an attribute normalization. The normalization is applied when the attribute is assigned or updated, and the normalized value will be persisted to the database. The normalization is also applied to the corresponding keyword argument of query methods, allowing records to be queried using unnormalized values.

For example:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  normalizes :email, with: -> email { email.strip.downcase }
  normalizes :phone, with: -> phone { phone.delete("^0-9").delete_prefix("1") }

user = User.create(email: " CRUISE-CONTROL@EXAMPLE.COM\n")
user.email                  # => "cruise-control@example.com"

user = User.find_by(email: "\tCRUISE-CONTROL@EXAMPLE.COM ")
user.email                  # => "cruise-control@example.com"
user.email_before_type_cast # => "cruise-control@example.com"

User.where(email: "\tCRUISE-CONTROL@EXAMPLE.COM ").count         # => 1
User.where(["email = ?", "\tCRUISE-CONTROL@EXAMPLE.COM "]).count # => 0

User.exists?(email: "\tCRUISE-CONTROL@EXAMPLE.COM ")         # => true
User.exists?(["email = ?", "\tCRUISE-CONTROL@EXAMPLE.COM "]) # => false

User.normalize_value_for(:phone, "+1 (555) 867-5309") # => "5558675309"

2.3 Add ActiveRecord::Base.generates_token_for

ActiveRecord::Base.generates_token_for defines the generation of tokens for a specific purpose. Generated tokens can expire and can also embed record data. When using a token to fetch a record, the data from the token and the current data from the record will be compared. If the two do not match, the token will be treated as invalid, the same as if it had expired.

Here is an example implementing a single-use password reset token:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base

  generates_token_for :password_reset, expires_in: 15.minutes do
    # `password_salt` (defined by `has_secure_password`) returns the salt for
    # the password. The salt changes when the password is changed, so the token
    # will expire when the password is changed.

user = User.first
token = user.generate_token_for(:password_reset)

User.find_by_token_for(:password_reset, token) # => user

user.update!(password: "new password")
User.find_by_token_for(:password_reset, token) # => nil

2.4 Add perform_all_later to enqueue multiple jobs at once

The perform_all_later method in Active Job, designed to streamline the process of enqueuing multiple jobs simultaneously. This powerful addition allows you to efficiently enqueue jobs without triggering callbacks. This is particularly useful when you need to enqueue a batch of jobs at once, reducing the overhead of multiple round-trips to the queue datastore.

Here's how you can take advantage of perform_all_later:

# Enqueueing individual jobs
ActiveJob.perform_all_later(MyJob.new("hello", 42), MyJob.new("world", 0))

# Enqueueing an array of jobs
user_jobs = User.pluck(:id).map { |id| UserJob.new(user_id: id) }

By utilizing perform_all_later, you can optimize your job enqueuing process and take advantage of improved efficiency, especially when working with large sets of jobs. It's worth noting that for queue adapters that support the new enqueue_all method, such as the Sidekiq adapter, the enqueuing process is further optimized using push_bulk.

Please be aware that this new method introduces a separate event, enqueue_all.active_job, and does not utilize the existing enqueue.active_job event. This ensures accurate tracking and reporting of the bulk enqueuing process.

2.5 Composite primary keys

Composite primary keys are now supported at both the database and application level. Rails is able to derive these keys directly from the schema. This feature is particularly beneficial for many-to-many relationships and other complex data models where a single column is insufficient to uniquely identify a record.

The SQL generated by query methods in Active Record (e.g. #reload, #update, #delete) will contain all parts of the composite primary key. Methods like #first and #last will use the full composite primary key in the ORDER BY statements.

The query_constraints macro can be used as a "virtual primary key" to achieve the same behavior without modifying the database schema. Example:

class TravelRoute < ActiveRecord::Base
  query_constraints :origin, :destination

Similarly, associations accept a query_constraints: option. This option serves as a composite foreign key, configuring the list of columns used for accessing the associated record.


class TravelRouteReview < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :travel_route, query_constraints: [:travel_route_origin, :travel_route_destination]

2.6 Introduce adapter for Trilogy

A new adapter has been introduced to facilitate the seamless integration of Trilogy, a MySQL-compatible database client, with Rails applications. Now, Rails applications have the option to incorporate Trilogy functionality by configuring their config/database.yml file. For instance:

  adapter: trilogy
  database: blog_development
  pool: 5

Alternatively, integration can be achieved using the DATABASE_URL environment variable:

ENV['DATABASE_URL'] # => "trilogy://localhost/blog_development?pool=5"

2.7 Add ActiveSupport::MessagePack

ActiveSupport::MessagePack is a serializer that integrates with the msgpack gem. ActiveSupport::MessagePack can serialize the basic Ruby types supported by msgpack, as well as several additional types such as Time, ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone, and ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess. Compared to JSON and Marshal, ActiveSupport::MessagePack can reduce payload size and improve performance.

ActiveSupport::MessagePack can be used as a message serializer:

config.active_support.message_serializer = :message_pack

# Or individually:
ActiveSupport::MessageEncryptor.new(secret, serializer: :message_pack)
ActiveSupport::MessageVerifier.new(secret, serializer: :message_pack)

As the cookies serializer:

config.action_dispatch.cookies_serializer = :message_pack

And as a cache serializer:

config.cache_store = :file_store, "tmp/cache", { serializer: :message_pack }

# Or individually:
ActiveSupport::Cache.lookup_store(:file_store, "tmp/cache", serializer: :message_pack)

2.8 Introducing config.autoload_lib and config.autoload_lib_once for Enhanced Autoloading

A new configuration method, config.autoload_lib(ignore:), has been introduced. This method is used to enhance the autoload paths of applications by including the lib directory, which is not included by default. Also, config.autoload_lib(ignore: %w(assets tasks)) is generated for new applications.

When invoked from either config/application.rb or config/environments/*.rb, this method adds the lib directory to both config.autoload_paths and config.eager_load_paths. It's important to note that this feature is not available for engines.

To ensure flexibility, the ignore keyword argument can be used to specify subdirectories within the lib directory that should not be managed by the autoloaders. For instance, you can exclude directories like assets, tasks, and generators by passing them to the ignore argument:

config.autoload_lib(ignore: %w(assets tasks generators))

The config.autoload_lib_once method is similar to config.autoload_lib, except that it adds lib to config.autoload_once_paths instead.

Please, see more details in the autoloading guide

2.9 Active Record API for general async queries

A significant enhancement has been introduced to the Active Record API, expanding its support for asynchronous queries. This enhancement addresses the need for more efficient handling of not-so-fast queries, particularly focusing on aggregates (such as count, sum, etc.) and all methods returning a single record or anything other than a Relation.

The new API includes the following asynchronous methods:

  • async_count
  • async_sum
  • async_minimum
  • async_maximum
  • async_average
  • async_pluck
  • async_pick
  • async_ids
  • async_find_by_sql
  • async_count_by_sql

Here's a brief example of how to use one of these methods, async_count, to count the number of published posts in an asynchronous manner:

# Synchronous count
published_count = Post.where(published: true).count # => 10

# Asynchronous count
promise = Post.where(published: true).async_count # => #<ActiveRecord::Promise status=pending>
promise.value # => 10

These methods allow for the execution of these operations in an asynchronous manner, which can significantly improve performance for certain types of database queries.

2.10 Allow templates to set strict locals

Introduce a new feature that allows templates to set explicit locals. This enhancement provides greater control and clarity when passing variables to your templates.

By default, templates will accept any locals as keyword arguments. However, now you can define what locals a template should accept by adding a locals magic comment at the beginning of your template file.

Here's how it works:

<%# locals: (message:) -%>
<%= message %>

You can also set default values for these locals:

<%# locals: (message: "Hello, world!") -%>
<%= message %>

If you want to disable the use of locals entirely, you can do so like this:

<%# locals: () %>

2.11 Add Rails.application.deprecators

The new Rails.application.deprecators method returns a collection of managed deprecators within your application, and allows you to add and retrieve individual deprecators with ease:

Rails.application.deprecators[:my_gem] = ActiveSupport::Deprecation.new("2.0", "MyGem")
Rails.application.deprecators[:other_gem] = ActiveSupport::Deprecation.new("3.0", "OtherGem")

The collection's configuration settings affect all deprecators in the collection.

Rails.application.deprecators.debug = true

# => true

# => true

There are scenarios where you might want to mute all deprecator warnings for a specific block of code. With the deprecators collection, you can easily silence all deprecator warnings within a block:

Rails.application.deprecators.silence do
  Rails.application.deprecators[:my_gem].warn    # No warning (silenced)
  Rails.application.deprecators[:other_gem].warn # No warning (silenced)

2.12 Support pattern matching for JSON response.parsed_body

When ActionDispatch::IntegrationTest tests blocks invoke response.parsed_body for JSON responses, their payloads will be available with indifferent access. This enables integration with Ruby's Pattern Matching, and built-in Minitest support for pattern matching:

get "/posts.json"

response.content_type         # => "application/json; charset=utf-8"
response.parsed_body.class    # => Array
response.parsed_body          # => [{"id"=>42, "title"=>"Title"},...

assert_pattern { response.parsed_body => [{ id: 42 }] }

get "/posts/42.json"

response.content_type         # => "application/json; charset=utf-8"
response.parsed_body.class    # => ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess
response.parsed_body          # => {"id"=>42, "title"=>"Title"}

assert_pattern { response.parsed_body => [{ title: /title/i }] }

2.13 Extend response.parsed_body to parse HTML with Nokogiri

Extend the ActionDispatch::Testing module to support parsing the value of an HTML response.body into a Nokogiri::HTML5::Document instance:

get "/posts"

response.content_type         # => "text/html; charset=utf-8"
response.parsed_body.class    # => Nokogiri::HTML5::Document
response.parsed_body.to_html  # => "<!DOCTYPE html>\n<html>\n..."

Newly added Nokogiri support for pattern matching, along with built-in Minitest support for pattern matching presents opportunities to make test assertions about the structure and content of the HTML response:

get "/posts"

html = response.parsed_body # => <html>
                            #      <head></head>
                            #        <body>
                            #          <main><h1>Some main content</h1></main>
                            #        </body>
                            #     </html>

assert_pattern { html.at("main") => { content: "Some main content" } }
assert_pattern { html.at("main") => { content: /content/ } }
assert_pattern { html.at("main") => { children: [{ name: "h1", content: /content/ }] } }

2.14 Introduce ActionView::TestCase.register_parser

Extend ActionView::TestCase to support parsing content rendered by view partials into known structures. By default, define rendered_html to parse HTML into a Nokogiri::XML::Node and rendered_json to parse JSON into an ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess:

test "renders HTML" do
  article = Article.create!(title: "Hello, world")

  render partial: "articles/article", locals: { article: article }

  assert_pattern { rendered_html.at("main h1") => { content: "Hello, world" } }

test "renders JSON" do
  article = Article.create!(title: "Hello, world")

  render formats: :json, partial: "articles/article", locals: { article: article }

  assert_pattern { rendered_json => { title: "Hello, world" } }

To parse the rendered content into RSS, register a call to RSS::Parser.parse:

register_parser :rss, -> rendered { RSS::Parser.parse(rendered) }

test "renders RSS" do
  article = Article.create!(title: "Hello, world")

  render formats: :rss, partial: article, locals: { article: article }

  assert_equal "Hello, world", rendered_rss.items.last.title

To parse the rendered content into a Capybara::Simple::Node, re-register an :html parser with a call to Capybara.string:

register_parser :html, -> rendered { Capybara.string(rendered) }

test "renders HTML" do
  article = Article.create!(title: "Hello, world")

  render partial: article

  rendered_html.assert_css "main h1", text: "Hello, world"

3 Railties

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

3.1 Removals

  • Remove deprecated bin/rails secrets:setup command.

  • Remove default X-Download-Options header since it is used only by Internet Explorer.

3.2 Deprecations

  • Deprecate usage of Rails.application.secrets.

  • Deprecate secrets:show and secrets:edit commands in favor of credentials.

  • Deprecate Rails::Generators::Testing::Behaviour in favor of Rails::Generators::Testing::Behavior.

3.3 Notable changes

  • Add sandbox_by_default option to start rails console in sandbox mode by default.

  • Add new syntax for support filtering tests by line ranges.

  • Add DATABASE option that enables the specification of the target database when executing the rails railties:install:migrations command to copy migrations.

  • Add support for Bun in rails new --javascript generator.

    $ rails new my_new_app --javascript=bun
  • Add ability to show slow tests to the test runner.

4 Action Cable

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

4.1 Removals

4.2 Deprecations

4.3 Notable changes

  • Add capture_broadcasts test helper to capture all messages broadcasted in a block.

  • Add the ability to Redis pub/sub adapter to automatically reconnect when Redis connection is lost.

  • Add command callbacks before_command, after_command, and around_command to ActionCable::Connection::Base.

5 Action Pack

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

5.1 Removals

  • Remove deprecated behavior on Request#content_type

  • Remove deprecated ability to assign a single value to config.action_dispatch.trusted_proxies.

  • Remove deprecated poltergeist and webkit (capybara-webkit) driver registration for system testing.

5.2 Deprecations

  • Deprecate config.action_dispatch.return_only_request_media_type_on_content_type.

  • Deprecate AbstractController::Helpers::MissingHelperError.

  • Deprecate ActionDispatch::IllegalStateError.

  • Deprecate speaker, vibrate, and vr permissions policy directives.

  • Deprecate true and false values for config.action_dispatch.show_exceptions in favor of :all, :rescuable, or :none.

5.3 Notable changes

  • Add exclude? method to ActionController::Parameters. It is the inverse of include? method.

  • Add ActionController::Parameters#extract_value method to allow extracting serialized values from params.

  • Add the ability to use custom logic for storing and retrieving CSRF tokens.

  • Add html and screenshot kwargs for system test screenshot helper.

6 Action View

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

6.1 Removals

  • Remove deprecated constant ActionView::Path.

  • Remove deprecated support to passing instance variables as locals to partials.

6.2 Deprecations

6.3 Notable changes

  • check_box_tag and radio_button_tag now accept checked as a keyword argument.

  • Add picture_tag helper to generate HTML <picture> tags.

  • The simple_format helper now handles a :sanitize_options feature, allowing the addition of extra options for the sanitize process.

    simple_format("<a target=\"_blank\" href=\"http://example.com\">Continue</a>", {}, { sanitize_options: { attributes: %w[target href] } })
    # => "<p><a target=\"_blank\" href=\"http://example.com\">Continue</a></p>"

7 Action Mailer

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

7.1 Removals

7.2 Deprecations

  • Deprecate config.action_mailer.preview_path.

  • Deprecate passing params to assert_enqueued_email_with via the :args kwarg. Now supports a :params kwarg, so use that to pass params.

7.3 Notable changes

  • Add config.action_mailer.preview_paths to support multiple preview paths.

  • Add capture_emails in the test helper to capture all emails sent in a block.

  • Add deliver_enqueued_emails to ActionMailer::TestHelper to deliver all enqueued email jobs.

8 Active Record

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

8.1 Removals

  • Remove support for ActiveRecord.legacy_connection_handling.

  • Remove deprecated ActiveRecord::Base config accessors

  • Remove support for :include_replicas on configs_for. Use :include_hidden instead.

  • Remove deprecated config.active_record.partial_writes.

  • Remove deprecated Tasks::DatabaseTasks.schema_file_type.

  • Remove --no-comments flag in structure dumps for PostgreSQL.

8.2 Deprecations

  • Deprecate name argument on #remove_connection.

  • Deprecate check_pending! in favor of check_all_pending!.

  • Deprecate deferrable: true option of add_foreign_key in favor of deferrable: :immediate.

  • Deprecate TestFixtures#fixture_path in favor of TestFixtures#fixture_paths.

  • Deprecate delegation from Base to connection_handler.

  • Deprecate config.active_record.suppress_multiple_database_warning.

  • Deprecate using ActiveSupport::Duration as an interpolated bind parameter in a SQL string template.

  • Deprecate all_connection_pools and make connection_pool_list more explicit.

  • Deprecate read_attribute(:id) returning the primary key if the primary key is not :id.

  • Deprecate rewhere argument on #merge.

  • Deprecate aliasing non-attributes with alias_attribute.

8.3 Notable changes

  • Add TestFixtures#fixture_paths to support multiple fixture paths.

  • Add authenticate_by when using has_secure_password.

  • Add update_attribute! to ActiveRecord::Persistence, which is similar to update_attribute but raises ActiveRecord::RecordNotSaved when a before_* callback throws :abort.

  • Allow using aliased attributes with insert_all/upsert_all.

  • Add :include option to add_index.

  • Add #regroup query method as a short-hand for .unscope(:group).group(fields).

  • Add support for auto-populated columns, and custom primary keys to the SQLite3 adapter.

  • Add modern, performant defaults for SQLite3 database connections.

  • Allow specifying where clauses with column-tuple syntax.

    Topic.where([:title, :author_name] => [["The Alchemist", "Paulo Coelho"], ["Harry Potter", "J.K Rowling"]])
  • Auto generated index names are now limited to 62 bytes, which fits within the default index name length limits for MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite.

  • Introduce adapter for Trilogy database client.

  • Add ActiveRecord.disconnect_all! method to immediately close all connections from all pools.

  • Add PostgreSQL migration commands for enum rename, add value, and rename value.

  • Add ActiveRecord::Base#id_value alias to access the raw value of a record's id column.

  • Add validation option for enum.

9 Active Storage

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

9.1 Removals

  • Remove deprecated invalid default content types in Active Storage configurations.

  • Remove deprecated ActiveStorage::Current#host and ActiveStorage::Current#host= methods.

  • Remove deprecated behavior when assigning to a collection of attachments. Instead of appending to the collection, the collection is now replaced.

  • Remove deprecated purge and purge_later methods from the attachments association.

9.2 Deprecations

9.3 Notable changes

  • ActiveStorage::Analyzer::AudioAnalyzer now outputs sample_rate and tags in the output metadata hash.

  • Add the option to utilize predefined variants when invoking the preview or representation methods on an attachment.

  • preprocessed option is added when declaring variants to preprocess variants.

  • Add the ability to destroy Active Storage variants.

    User.first.avatar.variant(resize_to_limit: [100, 100]).destroy

10 Active Model

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

10.1 Removals

10.2 Deprecations

10.3 Notable changes

  • Add support for infinite ranges to LengthValidators :in/:within options.

    validates_length_of :first_name, in: ..30
  • Add support for beginless ranges to inclusivity/exclusivity validators.

    validates_inclusion_of :birth_date, in: -> { (..Date.today) }
    validates_exclusion_of :birth_date, in: -> { (..Date.today) }
  • Add support for password challenges to has_secure_password. When set, validate that the password challenge matches the persisted password_digest.

  • Allow validators to accept lambdas without record argument.

    # Before
    validates_comparison_of :birth_date, less_than_or_equal_to: ->(_record) { Date.today }
    # After
    validates_comparison_of :birth_date, less_than_or_equal_to: -> { Date.today }

11 Active Support

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

11.1 Removals

  • Remove deprecated override of Enumerable#sum.

  • Remove deprecated ActiveSupport::PerThreadRegistry.

  • Remove deprecated option to passing a format to #to_s in Array, Range, Date, DateTime, Time, BigDecimal, Float and, Integer.

  • Remove deprecated override of ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone.name.

  • Remove deprecated active_support/core_ext/uri file.

  • Remove deprecated active_support/core_ext/range/include_time_with_zone file.

  • Remove implicit conversion of objects into String by ActiveSupport::SafeBuffer.

  • Remove deprecated support to generate incorrect RFC 4122 UUIDs when providing a namespace ID that is not one of the constants defined on Digest::UUID.

11.2 Deprecations

  • Deprecate config.active_support.disable_to_s_conversion.

  • Deprecate config.active_support.remove_deprecated_time_with_zone_name.

  • Deprecate config.active_support.use_rfc4122_namespaced_uuids.

  • Deprecate SafeBuffer#clone_empty.

  • Deprecate usage of the singleton ActiveSupport::Deprecation.

  • Deprecate initializing a ActiveSupport::Cache::MemCacheStore with an instance of Dalli::Client.

  • Deprecate Notification::Event's #children and #parent_of? methods.

11.3 Notable changes

12 Active Job

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

12.1 Removals

  • Remove QueAdapter.

12.2 Deprecations

12.3 Notable changes

  • Add perform_all_later to enqueue multiple jobs at once.

  • Add --parent option to job generator to specify parent class of job.

  • Add after_discard method to ActiveJob::Base to run a callback when a job is about to be discarded.

  • Add support for logging background job enqueue callers.

13 Action Text

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

13.1 Removals

13.2 Deprecations

13.3 Notable changes

14 Action Mailbox

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

14.1 Removals

14.2 Deprecations

14.3 Notable changes

  • Add X-Forwarded-To addresses to recipients.

  • Add bounce_now_with method to ActionMailbox::Base to send the bounce email without going through a mailer queue.

15 Ruby on Rails Guides

Please refer to the Changelog for detailed changes.

15.1 Notable changes

16 Credits

See the full list of contributors to Rails for the many people who spent many hours making Rails, the stable and robust framework it is. Kudos to all of them.


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